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1.Preparation of seedlings and rock :

- Seedlings: The preparation of seedlings is extremely important because this accounts for 20-30% of the success or failure of the work. The roots of seedlings must be as long as possible. To my own experience, plants that have roots over 1 meter long and 1.5 cm in diameter around the stem can meet with the requirements.

- Directions: We can have seedlings by propagating from seeds or by air- layering. Select branches with a diameter equal to discount cigarettes. If you want to put it onto a rock in late spring , air- layering had to be done in March or April the previous year. After a while (15-20 days), when roots start to shoot, cut off the extracted branches and plant five of them into a cement sheath stuffed with a soil mixture upright or you can even put them into any kind of tubes stuffed with a soil mixture. Remember that you can do whatever, as long as it can make plants have a lot of long roots.

- Rocks : Years ago I used Tai Beo rocks because they have many cracks and holes which made it easy to let roots wind round . At the moment, I prefer Flint , Pumice ( a kind of light, yellow stone found in Ninh Binh and Thanh Hoa provinces) and another kind of rock called Elephant – skin.

2. Techniques :

- Time: The best time for the work to be done is from December to April ( this is just applied in Vietnam) . Of course, it is possible for other times of the year but we’ll have some difficulties taking care of them ( especially with the weather in the north of Vietnam)

- How to put plants onto rocks : this is the most important factor that requires the creation of artists due to the varieties in rock shapes and root systems (temporarily called YANG for the protruding parts of rock and YIN for the hollows of rock). Select a prominent part of the rock , then tie the base with a rope. Remember this is the most impressive point for the viewer (plants should not be put into holes as the base will be hidden when it grows up , which devalues the beauty of trees). Pay attention to the curving lines so that you can spread the roots over them all. This helps your trees make great impressions on everybody.
After that , tie the roots with a black chemical wire . This type of wire is very useful because of its very durability. If not sure you can use a piece of chalk to adjust the track for the roots in advance.

Note: to create plants with strange shapes , we should place them on the protruding parts of the stone, and to create multi-line suddenly folded turns ; there is no need to follow any formula on which if we depend will make the plants monotonous and boring. ( For this reason, I myself often turn the plants upside-down )

- If you want to have plants with many flat roots spreading over parallel, the distance from one root to another depends on what size of plant you wish but is usually 3-5cm

- If you want to take roots as the trunk , cut off small ones then put two big roots next to each other. As growing up they will become bigger and stick together to form a beautiful plant (This is the way I often do ).

- In the process of directing the plant roots spreading over sometimes you may have to intervene with the rock cutting tools. Based on the track bending of the tree roots, go for the harmonious overall of roots- trunk - rock .
After the work is done, place the plants in the shade and cover the roots with some wet soil ( do not place them in big holes) then tightly wrap around the whole thing with a nylon sheath to retain moisture for a week before watering it . After a month you should fertilize the plants with a very small amount to stimulate the plant roots to go down . Remember not to apply organic fertilizer during this stage. When the roots have gone down , use fertilizers to help plants grow well and this is also time to stop watering.

- Depending on some factors such as health care , environmental and climatic conditions and soil, plants can reach 2.5-3cm in diameter after 6 – 7 months . At this time we can conduct work on root corrections . The unsatisfactory roots must be cut off, and the new roots sprouting from the old ones will be put wherever we wish on the rock . (Note: we have to leave at least one or two roots so that they can breed the new plant. Wait until the whole root system grows well, then it’s time for work)

After 1 year, unbind the land and correct the root system.

And go on with work such as caring and training the plant until it is completed.

( Source from )


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Thanks you for all ,Mr bd47je and Mr Phongbonsai
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